1. What is a supercapacitor?

Supercapacitor, also known as electric double layer capacitor, is an innovative energy storage device whose energy storage principle is completely different from traditional batteries. Compared to batteries, supercapacitors achieve faster storage and release of electrical energy by using an electric field to store charge between electrodes. This electric field storage mechanism allows supercapacitors to achieve efficient energy exchange in a very short time, which has significant advantages especially in applications that require fast response, such as regenerative braking systems in electric vehicles.

Unlike traditional batteries that rely on chemical reactions, supercapacitors store energy through positively and negatively charged ions and use a liquid electrolyte to facilitate the flow of energy. This design feature not only alleviates the problem of mutual repulsion of electrons and increases energy storage capacity, but also prevents any chemical reactions from being involved in the charging and discharging process of the supercapacitor, helping to improve the safety and stability of the device.

The long life of supercapacitors is another striking feature. Compared with traditional batteries, supercapacitors can withstand millions of more charge and discharge cycles, greatly extending their service life. In addition, its advantages in stability and operating temperature range allow supercapacitors to operate reliably under harsh environmental conditions, and they do not contain heavy metals, making them more environmentally friendly.

In summary, supercapacitors have demonstrated advantages such as high efficiency, fast response, and long life in the field of energy storage technology, making them a favored advanced energy storage solution in various application fields, especially in scenarios that require fast charging and discharging. plan.

2. Working principle of supercapacitor

Supercapacitor is a new type of device that uses the interface double layer generated between electrodes and electrolytes to store energy. When the electrode comes into contact with the electrolyte, mainly due to the effects of Coulomb force, intermolecular force and interatomic force, a relatively stable double layer of charges with opposite signs appears at the solid-liquid interface, which is called an interface double layer. Think of an electric double layer supercapacitor as two inactive porous plates suspended in an electrolyte, with voltage applied to the two plates. The potential applied to the positive plate attracts the negative ions in the electrolyte, and the negative plate attracts the positive ions, thereby forming an electric double layer capacitor on the surfaces of the two electrodes. Electric double layer capacitors can be divided into carbon electrode double layer supercapacitors, metal oxide electrode supercapacitors and organic polymer electrode supercapacitors according to different electrode materials.

Working principle of supercapacitors

3. Supercapacitors have unique characteristics compared to batteries and traditional physical capacitors

  • High power density

The power density of supercapacitors can reach 102~104 W/kg, which is much higher than the level of batteries. This allows it to store and release energy at a higher speed, making it suitable for high-power output scenarios that require fast response.

  • Long cycle life

.After a supercapacitor undergoes 500,000 to 1 million high-speed and deep charge and discharge cycles in a few seconds, its characteristics change slightly, and its capacity and internal resistance only decrease by 10% to 20%. This makes it a reliable energy storage solution for long-term use.

  • Wide operating temperature limit

Since the adsorption and desorption speed of ions in the supercapacitor does not change much at low temperatures, its capacity changes little, and the operating temperature range can reach -40°C ~ +80°C, making it suitable for a variety of environmental conditions.

  • Maintenance-free

Supercapacitors have high charging and discharging efficiency and good tolerance to overcharge and over-discharge. Therefore, in theory, they do not require regular maintenance, reducing management and maintenance costs.

Green and environmentally friendly: Supercapacitors do not use heavy metals and other harmful chemicals during the production process, and have a long life. Therefore, they are considered a new type of green and environmentally friendly power supply, in line with the advocacy of sustainable development.

4. Three major differences between supercapacitors and lithium batteries

1.The first major difference between supercapacitors and lithium batteries: lifespan

There is not much difference in the life span of supercapacitor batteries and lithium batteries, both can reach a level of more than 10 years. In terms of cycle life, general lithium-ion batteries range from 500 to 3,000 cycles (lithium titanate can reach 10,000 cycles). Supercapacitors can achieve a capacity decay of only 10% after 100,000 cycles.

The second biggest difference between supercapacitors and lithium batteries: self-discharge

Lithium-ion batteries have strong storage stability of chemical energy, so they have good capacity retention capabilities. Under normal circumstances, the monthly capacity loss can be controlled within 3%. The leakage current of supercapacitors is relatively large. At the mA level, the capacity loss may exceed 3% in just one day.

The third major difference between supercapacitors and lithium batteries: the influence of working environment temperature

The operating temperature range of lithium-ion batteries is generally in the range of -30~60°C. However, charging the battery when the battery is below 0°C may cause lithium precipitation, resulting in irreversible damage to the battery. Supercapacitors have good adaptability to temperature and can operate in the range of -40~65°C whether charging or discharging.

5.Applications of supercapacitor

Supercapacitors have a wide range of applications in multiple fields, some of the major ones include:

  • Transportation field

Electric and hybrid vehicles: Supercapacitors are used to provide instantaneous high power, especially during starting and acceleration, as well as through energy recovery during regenerative braking.

Public transportation: In electric buses and trams, supercapacitors can charge and discharge quickly, reducing parking time and improving transportation efficiency.

  • Electric power industry

Renewable energy storage: Supercapacitors can be used to balance and store intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, to provide stable power output.
Peak load smoothing: In power systems, supercapacitors can be used to smooth peak loads and improve the efficiency and stability of the power system.

  • Industrial application areas

Automation systems: Supercapacitors can be used to provide fast, reliable power to support the operation of automated systems and reduce downtime.
Electronic equipment backup: In industrial equipment, supercapacitors can be used as power backup to prevent data loss or production interruption caused by unexpected power outages.
Smart grid application: The application of supercapacitors in smart grids can improve the response speed and stability of the power system and cope with sudden changes in power demand.

Conclusion

Xuansn is a professional supercapacitor manufacturer that controls every manufacturing process in detail. As an innovative electrical energy storage device, supercapacitors store charges between electrodes through an electric field to achieve rapid energy storage and release. And it has the characteristics of high power density, long cycle life, wide operating temperature range, maintenance-free and environmental protection. Widely used in transportation, power industry and industrial applications. We are committed to providing customers with high-quality products, continuous innovation, and serving every customer well.